It is not easy
to find a job in Italy, both for the Italian citizens and for the foreign
ones. The unemployment rate varies according to the regions, but job, like
in many other European countries, remains a problem for young people and for
Numerous are the young people, above all in the south of the country, who
don't manage to find a stable job and that adapt themselves, therefore, to
make irregular jobs, badly paid, not regularized.
It is, therefore, more difficult also for a foreign young person to find a
job, above all for those who have no educational qualifications, experience
or sufficient knowledge of the Italian language.
Job Access for communitarian citizens
The freedom to work within the UE is one of the base
rights sanctioned by the institutive treaty of the European Community that
guarantees to every citizen the freedom to live, to work, to look for a job,
to start an enterprise and to supply services in whichever State member.
Therefore, each worker of the Union has the right to carry out a
subordinated activity in whichever State member, no matter its place of
residence, at the same conditions of the citizens of the country.
They can enrol in federal employment agency lists benefiting from the same
assistance offered to the national unemployed. The knowledge of a language
can be a condition for job access.
By the law the European citizens who mean to work in Italy can look for a
job for a limited period of time (6 months); in case of a longer stay it is
necessary to prove the effective possibility to find a job. In order to
start a business you need a
issued automatically for the duration of 5 years and is renewable.
You have to register yourself at Chamber of Commerce or at an equivalent
Those who want to start up a company have to prove to have experience in the
field, at least a three year work experience. UE citizens can carry out
their own economic or professional business maintaining the main centre of
the activity in the country of origin (free performance of services).
Therefore as well as it occurs for the employees, to carry out an
independent business in another country of the Union gives the right to live
there. For stays of over three months this right has to be proved by the
issuing a statement of stay for citizen of a State member.
The access to the professions in Public Administration is free to all the
communitarian citizens but except for the activities that provide for the
exercise of public powers or for the ones regarding the safeguard of the
general interests of the State (Armed Forces, police, justice, diplomacy,
fiscal administration...). But it is indispensable to know the Italian
language well and you should remember that, with the exception of some short
time contracts, you can have access to the public function just passing a
In case of exclusion from a public competition of a UE citizen in Italy it
is possible to make an appeal before the
Administrative Tribunal) within 60 days from the notification.
You can have further information:
Contacting one of the 140 Information Centres distributed on all the
territory of the European Union, the Info-Point Europe (IPE),
created with a view to giving a first answer to whichever request for
information. At the page
you can find all the addresses.
Contacting the toll number 00800/67891011 from a whichever
place in the 15 States members you will be able to put you through with
an operator of Europe Direct who, speaking your language, will be able
to provide you with direct answers to general requests and, in case of
more detailed questions, to address you to the best source of
information and advice.
Consulting the Internet site of Service d'orientation of the European
Union at the page
"Studying and working in Europe" designed by the National Resources
Centre for the Guidance of the Ministry of Labour and the Social
Policies and the European Commission.
Access to the subordinated job at short length time or long length time for
extra communitarian citizens
Itís necessary to request an entry visa
motivated by work, to Italian Consular offices in your country. These visas
are issued according to a decree of the Presidence of the Council of
Ministers. It establishes how many incomes in Italy every year are granted
Ministry of the jobís official site)
for dependent job, at short length
time or long length time, independent job and seasonal job.
The categories defined by law are excluded from the annual quotas, such as:
- highly specialized staff of foreign companies having offices of
representation in Italy;
- university lecturers, university professors and research students who have
to carry out in Italy a paid academic assignment or an activity of research;
- translators and interpreters;
- sea workers or workers in circus or travelling shows abroad;
- artistic and technical staff for lyric, theatre, concert shows or of
- foreign people who have to carry out whichever type of professional sport
- journalists correspondents officially recognized in Italy;
- professional nurses engaged in public and private sanitary structures.
With the new Law
of the 30/7/2002 n.189 the duration of the residence permit depends closely
on the real duration of the job. The residence permit for job reasons is
issued after the stipulation of the working contract. It has the duration
fixed from the stay contract and however can't last over nine months in case
of one or more seasonal working contract, a year in the case of a short time
subordinated working contract and two years for a long time contract.
The residence permit can be renewed on request.
Just after six years' stay rather, the foreign person can obtain the
residence permit (that has not an expiry date).
The Law provides
for the institution in every Province of a Unique Centre for Immigration,
at the Prefecture - Territorial Office of the Government, that takes care
entirely of the engagement of non communitarian workers coming from abroad
and at which the stay contract for job purposes will have to be undersigned
from both the parts. It is the Unique Centre for immigration to carry out
bureaucratic practices for the engagement, both at short time and long time.
The employer will have to present a nominative application of job permit for
the person he wants to engage at the Unique Center. Moreover he will have to
provide adequate documentation regarding the accomodation formalities that
he means to offer to the future employee, the proposal of the "stay
contract" and the relative conditions including the engagement, once
concluded the working relationship, to pay the return journey of the foreign
worker to his Country of origin.
If the employer does not know the future employee, then he will have
to apply to the Centre specifying the type of labour he needs and the
working treatment that means to offer. The Unique Centre for immigration
communicates the request to the competent zone Employment Centre which will
start to look for staff.
If within twenty days, no application of national or communitarian
worker has been presented, the Centre transmits to the demanding Unique
Centre a negative certification.
The Unique Centre, within a maximumof forty days from the
presentation of the request, and after having consulted the police
superintendent, issues the subordinated job permit in compliance with the
numerical, quantitative and qualitative limits.
The subordinated job permit will have validity for not over six months from
the issuing date. The Italian consular offices in the foreign person's
Country of residence or origin will issue the entry visa. Within eight days
from the entrance, the foreign person must go to the Unique Centre for the
immigration that has issued the permit, for signing the stay contract.
The loss of the workplace, also for dismissal, does not bring on the
revocation of the residence permit to the non communitarian worker: he can
enroll in the placement lists for the residual period of validity of the
permit, and however, for a period not inferior to six months.
For further information, call at toll number 800/196196 of the
Ministry of Labour, from Monday to Friday from 9 to 20.
Such procedure, provided for by the mentioned norm, is waiting for a
regulation that will be able to confirm or to modify what has been explained
in the previous chapters.
You can have
Recognition of the professional educational qualifications
recognition of diplomas allows foreign citiziens, that have qualifications
obtained in their country, of the UE or not adhering to the UE, to do their
own activity in an other State. Italy has adopted a system that includes:
legislation of the communitarian directives application, created with
the scope to make in all the European Community valid the qualifications
and the practical experience they had in their country.
bilateral agreements between Italy and the single foreign countries for
the mutual recognition of educational qualifications.
internal norm for the recognition of foreign educational qualifications.
The cases of
recognition of foreign professional educational qualifications in Italy
Professional educational qualifications obtained in the countries of the
Professional educational qualifications obtained in non communitarian
Professional educational qualifications got in the
Countries of the European Union
The base principle in force in the European Union is that if you are
qualified in the country of origin to carry on a certain profession this
qualification is valid also to carry on the profession in another country of
Those who wish to exercise in other countries of the European Union a
profession (teacher, lawyer, engineer, psychologist) that is regulated in
the country of origin, will have to get a recognition of their diploma
making a request to the competent authorities of the welcoming country that
have four months of time to take a decision. In case of doctors, nurses
responsible for the general assistance, dentists, obstetrician,
veterinaries, druggists or architects in all the countries of the European
Union they can have an automatic recognition. If the profession is not
regulated in the welcoming country, the recognition of diplomas is not
necessary and legal obstacles cannot be raised.
In order to know which professions are regulated in
the states members you should address to NARIC net - National
Academic Recognition Information Centres (http://www.enic-naric.net/)
where it is possible to have information about the recognition of your
professional educational qualification.
For Italy the Information Centre on Mobility and Academic Equivalences
(CIMEA) is a service of the Rui Foundation. The information service
offered by CIMEA is daily carried out by letter; it is possible also to
telephone or to ask for a personal talk (on appointment), on Monday or on
Tuesday, from 9.00 to 13.00.
can address to a professional organization that represents the profession at
issue in the State member of origin.
An example of regulated professions can be found on the User's Guide of
the general system of recognition of the professional qualifications,
published by the
Besides from the site of the European Union, it is
possible to download it also from the MIUR 's (Ministry of Education,
University and Research) site:
application must be made to the competent national authority (see
underneath) of the welcoming State. The recognition application will be
examined comparing the professional education obtained in the State member
of origin with the one requested in the State member. On the whole the
professional qualifications will be recognized exactly the same; in case
remarkable differences are stated the competent authority can subordinate
the recognition to the satisfaction of further requirements.
Within 30 days from the application reception the authority assesses the
thoroughness of the documentation produced communicating to the person
concerned eventual necessary integrations.
The person concerned can be asked, in some specific cases, to do an
adaptation training (of maximum three years) or to pass a vocational test.
The authority deals with the recognition emanating a decree within four
months from the presentation of the application.
The decree of recognition attributes to the beneficiary the right to access
to the profession (enrolling himself in the professional register) and to
exercise it in the respect of the requested conditions
from the enforced norm to the citizens of the welcoming country.
You can have
further information contacting the following national authority
competent in particular as regards the application of the EEC Directives:
Minister's Office - Department for the Coordination of the
Communitarian Policies Teacher Armanda BIANCHI CONTI - via Giardino
Theodoli 66 - 00186 Roma - tel. +3906/6779.5322 fax: +3906/6779.5342 -
Also through the toll number 800-876166: an operator will answer in
Italian to your questions on various topics concerning the Union -
included the recognition of the professional certificates - providing
therefore vocally the preliminary information; on request, a copy of the
material could be sent to you.
authorities competent for the recognition of the professional
certificates are, generally, the competent ministries, of which you find the
addresses for the most widespread professions:
* For the professions of stockbrokers; agrotechnicians; social workers;
actuaries; lawyers and proxies lawyers; biologist; chemists; agronomists;
business consultants; forest doctors; geologist; geometricians; journalists;
engineers; agrarian experts; industrial experts psychologists; accountants
and trade experts; alimentary technologists:
Ministry of Justice:
General Director's office for Civil Affair and Free Professions - Office
VII - via Arenula 69/70 - 00186 Roma -
tel. +39 06/6885.1 (switchboard) fax: +39 06/6833611
tel. + 39 06/68852314, - office for the external relations
professions in public employment (except for teachers and the sanitary
Department for the Public Office:
Presidency of Cabinet - corso Vittorio Emanuele II 116 - 00186 Roma -
tel. +39 06/68991
of state maternal , elementary and secondary schools and in the artistic
institutes (included Conservatory, Academies of Fine Arts, Isia)
Architects, Research students in university or other public research
Ministry of Education, University and Research:
Autonomy University and Students Service (SAUS) - Office X - piazzale
Kennedy 20 - 00144 Roma - tel. +39 06/59911 (switchboard)
* For the
Ministry of the Health:
Department of Sanitary Professions - Ufficio III - viale dell'Industria,
20 - 00144 Roma - tel. +39 06/5994.1 (switchboard)
(the entire list is available on the site
If you carry on
some independent professions like the one of hairdresser's, insurance
agent or trader, or a profession in the building field and you want to move
to another State member where these professions demand a particular
qualification, you need to prove to have practised such activity for a
determined number of years at a communitarian level, in most of the cases
for 5-6 years.
obtained in non communitarian Countries
The European directives concerning the recognition of
certificates and the related legislative decree that in Italy have put
into force the same directives, are applied to each foreign citizien who
asks for it.
The application of the European directives in the cases of recognition
of professional certificates obtained in non-communitarian countries
implies some additional formalities under the profile of the
documentation that must be presented: information and forms can be found
on the page
of the Italian Department of Justice.
The facsimile of recognition application varies according to the fact
that the same application is presented by a regularly living foreign
citizen in Italy or by a foreign citizen that sends the application from
the foreign country, and that means to use the recognition of the
professional certificate with a view to obtaining the entry visa in
Italy for independent job.
In the latter case, the foreign person must ask to the Department of
Justice for the declaration that there are no obstacles to the issue of
the certificate qualifying for the exercise of the professional
activity. Moreover the professional and educational qualifications whose
recognition is asked, must be presented in original copy and legalized
by the competent Italian diplomatic or consular representation in the
Country where the document has been written down.
For information you should address to:
Ministry of Justice - International Unit of Office III - General
Director's office of Civil Affairs and the Free Professions:
via Arenula 70 - 00186 Roma - tel. +3906 68897772
Dott.ssa Emanuela Ronzitti - Dott.ssa Antonella Pinori - Sig.ra Stefania
Napoleoni - Dott.ssa Franca Mancini - tel. +3906/68852314 fax
In order to know the state bilateral and multilateral
agreements stipulated by Italy on the recognition of the educational
communitarian people can ask the recognition limitedly to the number of
foreign people annually admitted on the national territory.
Looking for a
The communitarian citizens who are looking for a job
in another State of the European Union can avail of the services of the
Eures net instituted thanks to the collaboration between the European
Commission and the national job administrations.
The net is made of beyond 500 Eures advisers available in all the
Union, let alone in Norway and Island, that have the task to inform, to
advise and to help all those who intend to look for a job in another country
of the European Economic Area. For this reason they can take advantage of
two databases: one containing the international employment offers available
in all the States members of the European Union, the other helping us to
have a precise idea on the job and living conditions existing in the 17
countries of the net.
On the page
it is possible to find the addresses of the Eures advisers in all the
An internal search engine gives the possibility to look for the job offers.
The one who is looking for a job and the one who has to offer a workplace
can be put into contact by inserting themselves in the data base on line.
Always through the page of Eures it is possible to
find information and the addresses of the job services: in Italy it
corresponds to the site of the
Ministry of Labour.
Inside some useful indications for the job research are given, general
information and useful references on the national territory.
For having information, guidance and advice for education and job and
for having an active intermediation between job offer and demand it is
useful to address to public or private information points such as:
It is also
possible to answer to the announcements published in the generic or
specialized Italian press, here are some titles of example:
Bollettino del lavoro (Bulletin of the job):
fifteen days newspaper, buyable at newspaper stand, that offers
information on the job: you can find the competition bans, the several
engagements of the private companies and various news.
Friday Insert of the daily paper Corriere della Sera, addressed above
all to young people looking for the first occupation. In the site it is
possible to consult the demand for professional staff , let alone
information on the job world.
Magazine of announcements buyable at newspaper stand. Through the
electronic format you can consult job offers with the opportunity to
contact directly the operators thanks to the e-mail, and to insert your
job demand announcement. It is also available a job guide with
indications for those who are looking for an occupation. Inside there
are links to newspaper of other regions.
job offer can be found in the sites:
It is a portal on the job world. You can insert your resume, consult job
offers and avail of an information service, via email, regarding staff
demand with features similar to those forwarded with your resume.
The site is entirely dedicated to job and education. You can find job
offers and information on competitions.
It is possible to look for job offers and to insert your resume.
Useful site and rich of advices for those who are looking for a job.
Divided in four sections, it provides information on the labor market
and describes all the job research techniques in order to move in an
effective way and to find occupation. Moreover in the section "useful
sites", there are a series of useful resources for those who are looking
for a job as well as a rich directory of links.